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Turkey in the World Heritage List World Heritage Tentative List
Uluslararası Anıtlar ve Sitler Konseyi Türkiye Milli Komitesi
International Council on Monuments and Sites
Homepage > World Heritage Sites > Turkey in the World Heritage List
The General Conference of the UNESCO meeting in Paris from 17 October to 21 November 1972, at its seventeenth session, adopted the international treaty called the "Convention concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage" in order to encourage the identification, protection and preservation of cultural and natural heritage around the world considered to be of outstanding value to humanity. The World Heritage Convention was ratified by Turkey on 14 April 1982, approved by the Decision no 8/4788 of the Council of Ministers on 23 May 1982, and officially announced in the Gazette issued 17959 on 14 February 1983.

Cultural and/or natural properties that are of Outstanding Universal Value are designated by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee as a "World Heritage Site". Only countries that have signed the Convention, pledging to protect their natural and cultural heritage, can submit nomination proposals for properties on their territory to be considered for inclusion on the World Heritage List. Those nominated sites that meet the criteria for inscription are included in the List by the World Heritage Committee, the main body in charge of the implementation of the Convention, based on the evaluation reports prepared by the Advisory Bodies, ICOMOS and IUCN.

As of 2018, there are 1092 sites inscribed on the World Heritage List: 845 cultural, 209 natural, and 38 mixed properties. The number of World Heritage Sites increase each year during the General Committee meetings. For further details, please see the official website of the UNESCO World Heritage Centre: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list

As a result of the inscription programmes undertaken by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, there are 18 cultural and natural properties in Turkey that are  inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
UNESCO World Heritage List
Cultural Heritage
İstanbul'un Tarihi Alanları
N41 0 30.492 E28 58 47.748
List Date: 1985
Criteria: (i), (ii), (iii), (iv)
List Number: 356
M.Ö. 7. yy.da kurulan İstanbul'un, kuzeyde Haliç, doğuda İstanbul Boğazı ve güneyde Marmara Denizi ile çevrili kısmı günümüzde “Tarihi Yarımada” olarak anılmaktadır.

Kent, Avrupa ve Asya'yı birbirine bağlayan stratejik konumu nedeniyle tarihi boyunca kentte hüküm süren uygarlıklar için daima çok önemli olmuştur. Bu özellikleri ile kent, Roma, Bizans ve Osmanlı gibi büyük İmparatorlulara başkentlik yapmıştır. Bu görkemli geçmişi ile farklı dinleri, kültürleri, toplulukları ve bunların ürünü olan yapıtları benzersiz bir coğrafyada bir araya getiren İstanbul, 1985 tarihinde UNESCO Dünya Miras Listesi’ne 4 ana bölüm olarak dahil edilmiştir. Bunlar; Hipodrom, Ayasofya, Aya İrini, Küçük Ayasofya Camisi ve Topkapı Sarayı’nı içine alan Arkeolojik Park; Süleymaniye Camisi ve çevresini içine alan Süleymaniye Koruma Alanı; Zeyrek Camisi ve çevresini içine alan Zeyrek Koruma Alanı ve Tarihi Surlar Koruma Alanı’nı içermektedir.

Great Mosque and Hospital of Divrigi
N39 22 24.996 E38 7 24.996
List Date: 1985
Criteria: (i), (iv)
Area: 2,016 ha
List Number: 358

This region of Anatolia was conquered by the Turks at the beginning of the 11th century. In 1228–29 Emir Ahmet Shah founded a mosque, with its adjoining hospital, at Divrigi. The mosque has a single prayer room and is crowned by two cupolas. The highly sophisticated technique of vault construction, and a creative, exuberant type of decorative sculpture – particularly on the three doorways, in contrast to the unadorned walls of the interior – are the unique features of this masterpiece of Islamic architecture.

Hattusha: the Hittite Capital
N40 0 50.004 E34 37 14.016
List Date: 1986
Criteria: (i), (ii), (iii), (iv)
Area: 268 ha
List Number: 377
The archaeological site of Hattusha, former capital of the Hittite Empire, is notable for its urban organization, the types of construction that have been preserved (temples, royal residences, fortifications), the rich ornamentation of the Lions' Gate and the Royal Gate, and the ensemble of rock art at Yazilikaya. The city enjoyed considerable influence in Anatolia and northern Syria in the 2nd millennium B.C.

Nemrut Dağ
N38 2 11.796 E38 45 49.284
List Date: 1987
Criteria: (i), (iii), (iv)
Area: 11 ha
List Number: 448

The mausoleum of Antiochus I (69–34 B.C.), who reigned over Commagene, a kingdom founded north of Syria and the Euphrates after the breakup of Alexander's empire, is one of the most ambitious constructions of the Hellenistic period. The syncretism of its pantheon, and the lineage of its kings, which can be traced back through two sets of legends, Greek and Persian, is evidence of the dual origin of this kingdom's culture.

Antalya - Muğla
N36 20 6 E29 19 13.008
List Date: 1988
Criteria: (ii), (iii)
Area: 126 ha
List Number: 484

This site, which was the capital of Lycia, illustrates the blending of Lycian traditions and Hellenic influence, especially in its funerary art. The epigraphic inscriptions are crucial for our understanding of the history of the Lycian people and their Indo-European language.

City of Safranbolu
Karadeniz Bölgesi, Karabük
N41 15 36 E32 41 22.992
List Date: 1994
Criteria: (ii), (iv), (v)
Area: 193 ha
List Number: 614

From the 13th century to the advent of the railway in the early 20th century, Safranbolu was an important caravan station on the main East–West trade route. The Old Mosque, Old Bath and Süleyman Pasha Medrese were built in 1322. During its apogee in the 17th century, Safranbolu's architecture influenced urban development throughout much of the Ottoman Empire.

Archaeological Site of Troy
N39 57 23.184 E26 14 20.4
List Date: 1998
Criteria: (ii)(iii)(vi)
Area: 158 ha
List Number: 849

Troy, with its 4,000 years of history, is one of the most famous archaeological sites in the world. The first excavations at the site were undertaken by the famous archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann in 1870. In scientific terms, its extensive remains are the most significant demonstration of the first contact between the civilizations of Anatolia and the Mediterranean world. Moreover, the siege of Troy by Spartan and Achaean warriors from Greece in the 13th or 12th century B.C., immortalized by Homer in the Iliad, has inspired great creative artists throughout the world ever since.

Selimiye Mosque and its Social Complex
N41 40 40 E26 33 34
List Date: 2011
Criteria: (i), (iv)
Area: 2.50 ha
List Number: 1366

The square Mosque with its single great dome and four slender minarets, dominates the skyline of the former Ottoman capital of Edirne. Sinan, the most famous of Ottoman architects in the 16th century, considered the complex, which includes madrasas (Islamic schools), a covered market, clock house, outer courtyard and library, to be his best work. The interior decoration using Iznik tiles from the peak period of their production testifies to an art form that remains unsurpassed in this material. The complex is considered to be the most harmonious expression ever achieved of the Ottoman külliye, a group of buildings constructed around a mosque and managed as a single institution.

Neolithic Site of Çatalhöyük
N37 40 0 E32 49 41
List Date: 2012
Criteria: (iii), (iv)
Area: 37 ha
List Number: 1405

Two hills form the 37 ha site on the Southern Anatolian Plateau. The taller eastern mound contains eighteen levels of Neolithic occupation between 7400 bc and 6200 bc, including wall paintings, reliefs, sculptures and other symbolic and artistic features. Together they testify to the evolution of social organization and cultural practices as humans adapted to a sedentary life. The western mound shows the evolution of cultural practices in the Chalcolithic period, from 6200 bc to 5200 bc. Çatalhöyük provides important evidence of the transition from settled villages to urban agglomeration, which was maintained in the same location for over 2,000 years. It features a unique streetless settlement of houses clustered back to back with roof access into the buildings.

Pergamon and its Multi-Layered Cultural Landscape
N39 7 33 E27 10 48
List Date: 2014
Criteria: (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (vi)
Area: 333 ha
List Number: 1457

This site rises high above the Bakirçay Plain in Turkey’s Aegean region. The acropolis of Pergamon was the capital of the Hellenistic Attalid dynasty, a major centre of learning in the ancient world. Monumental temples, theatres, stoa or porticoes, gymnasium, altar and library were set into the sloping terrain surrounded by an extensive city wall. The rock-cut Kybele Sanctuary lies to the north-west on another hill visually linked to the acropolis. Later the city became capital of the Roman province of Asia known for its Asclepieion healing centre. The acropolis crowns a landscape containing burial mounds and remains of the Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman empires in and around the modern town of Bergama on the lower slopes.


Bursa and Cumalıkızık: the Birth of the Ottoman Empire
N40 11 5.03 E29 3 44.41
List Date: 2014
Criteria: (i), (ii), (iv), (vi)
Area: 27 ha
List Number: 1452

This property is a serial nomination of eight component sites in the City of Bursa and the nearby village of Cumalıkızık, in the southern Marmara region. The site illustrates the creation of an urban and rural system establishing the Ottoman Empire in the early 14th century. The property embodies the key functions of the social and economic organization of the new capital which evolved around a civic centre. These include commercial districts of khans, kulliyes (religious institutions) integrating mosques, religious schools, public baths and a kitchen for the poor, as well as the tomb of Orhan Ghazi, founder of the Ottoman dynasty. One component outside the historic centre of Bursa is the village of Cumalıkızık, the only rural village of this system to show the provision of hinterland support for the capital.

Diyarbakır Fortress and Hevsel Gardens Cultural Landscape
N37 54 11.16 E40 14 21.51
List Date: 2015
Criteria: (iv)
Area: 521
List Number: 1488

Located on an escarpment of the Upper Tigris River Basin that is part of the so-called Fertile Crescent, the fortified city of Diyarbakır and the landscape around has been an important centre since the Hellenistic period, through the Roman, Sassanid, Byzantine, Islamic and Ottoman times to the present. The site encompasses the Inner castle, known as İçkale and including the Amida Mound, and the 5.8 km-long city walls of Diyarbakır with their numerous towers, gates, buttresses, and 63 inscriptions. The site also includes the Hevsel Gardens, a green link between the city and the Tigris that supplied the city with food and water, the Anzele water source and the Ten-Eyed Bridge.

N37 55 45 E27 21 34
List Date: 2015
Criteria: (iii), (iv), (vi)
Area: 663 ha
List Number: 1018

Located within what was once the estuary of the River Kaystros, Ephesus comprises successive Hellenistic and Roman settlements founded on new locations, which followed the coastline as it retreated westward. Excavations have revealed grand monuments of the Roman Imperial period including the Library of Celsus and the Great Theatre. Little remains of the famous Temple of Artemis, one of the “Seven Wonders of the World,” which drew pilgrims from all around the Mediterranean. Since the 5th century, the House of the Virgin Mary, a domed cruciform chapel seven kilometres from Ephesus, became a major place of Christian pilgrimage. The Ancient City of Ephesus is an outstanding example of a Roman port city, with sea channel and harbour basin.
Archaeological Site of Ani
N40 30 0 E43 34 0
List Date: 2016
Criteria: (ii), (iii), (iv)
Area: 251 ha
List Number: 1518

This site is located on a secluded plateau of northeast Turkey overlooking a ravine that forms a natural border with Armenia. This medieval city combines residential, religious and military structures, characteristic of a medieval urbanism built up over the centuries by Christian and then Muslim dynasties. The city flourished in the 10th and 11th centuries CE when it became the capital of the medieval Armenian kingdom of the Bagratides and profited from control of one branch of the Silk Road. Later, under Byzantine, Seljuk and Georgian sovereignty, it maintained its status as an important crossroads for merchant caravans. The Mongol invasion and a devastating earthquake in 1319 marked the beginning of the city’s decline. The site presents a comprehensive overview of the evolution of medieval architecture through examples of almost all the different architectural innovations of the region between the 7th and 13th centuries CE.

N37 42 30 E28 43 25
List Date: 2017
Criteria: (ii), (iii), (iv), (vi)
Area: 152 ha
List Number: 1519
Located in southwestern Turkey, in the upper valley of the Morsynus River, the site consists of two components: the archaeological site of Aphrodisias and the marble quarries northeast of the city. The temple of Aphrodite dates from the 3rd century BC and the city was built one century later. The wealth of Aphrodisias came from the marble quarries and the art produced by its sculptors. The city streets are arranged around several large civic structures, which include temples, a theatre, an agora and two bath complexes.
Gobekli Tepe
N37 13 23.671 E38 55 20.51
List Date: 2018
Criteria: (i), (ii), (iv)
Area: 126 ha
List Number: 1572

Located in the Germuş mountains of south-eastern Anatolia, this property presents monumental circular and rectangular megalithic structures, interpreted as enclosures, which were erected by hunter-gatherers in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic age between 9,600 and 8,200 BCE. These monuments were probably used in connection with rituals, mostly likely of a funerary nature. Distinctive T-shaped pillars are carved with images of wild animals, providing insight into the way of life and beliefs of people living in Upper Mesopotamia about 11,500 years ago.
Cultural and Natural Heritage
Göreme National Park and the Rock Sites of Cappadocia
Nevşehir - Kayseri
N38 40 0.012 E34 51 0
List Date: 1985
Criteria: (i), (iii), (v), (vii)
Area: 9,884 ha
List Number: 357

In a spectacular landscape, entirely sculpted by erosion, the Göreme valley and its surroundings contain rock-hewn sanctuaries that provide unique evidence of Byzantine art in the post-Iconoclastic period. Dwellings, troglodyte villages and underground towns – the remains of a traditional human habitat dating back to the 4th century – can also be seen there.

N37 55 26.004 E29 7 23.988
List Date: 1988
Criteria: (iii), (iv), (vii)
Area: 1,077 ha
List Number: 485

Deriving from springs in a cliff almost 200 m high overlooking the plain, calcite-laden waters have created at Pamukkale (Cotton Palace) an unreal landscape, made up of mineral forests, petrified waterfalls and a series of terraced basins. At the end of the 2nd century B.C. the dynasty of the Attalids, the kings of Pergamon, established the thermal spa of Hierapolis. The ruins of the baths, temples and other Greek monuments can be seen at the site.

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